Sunday, April 30, 2017 07:00 am EDT

Git command cheat sheet

Bri's picture

The majority of this list came from http://cheat.errtheblog.com/s/git but I have added in some tidbits that I have found in other places as well.

Configuration

git config -e [--global]
edit the .git/config [or ~/.gitconfig] file in your $EDITOR

git config --global user.name 'John Doe'
git config --global user.email johndoe@example.com
sets your name and email for commit messages

git config branch.autosetupmerge true
tells git-branch and git-checkout to setup new branches so that git-pull(1)
will appropriately merge from that remote branch. Recommended. Without this,
you will have to add --track to your branch command or manually merge remote
tracking branches with "fetch" and then "merge".

git config core.autocrlf true
This setting tells git to convert the newlines to the system’s standard
when checking out files, and to LF newlines when committing in

You can add "--global" after "git config" to any of these commands to make it
apply to all git repos (writes to ~/.gitconfig).

Info

git reflog
Use this to recover from *major* mess ups! It's basically a log of the
last few actions and you might have luck and find old commits that
have been lost by doing a complex merge.

git diff
show a diff of the changes made since your last commit
to diff one file: "git diff -- [filename]"
to show a diff between staging area and HEAD: `git diff --cached`

git status
show files added to the staging area, files with changes, and untracked files

git log
show recent commits, most recent on top. Useful options:
--color with color
--graph with an ASCII-art commit graph on the left
--decorate with branch and tag names on appropriate commits
--stat with stats (files changed, insertions, and deletions)
-p with full diffs
--author=foo only by a certain author
--after="MMM DD YYYY" ex. ("Jun 20 2008") only commits after a certain date
--before="MMM DD YYYY" only commits that occur before a certain date
--merge only the commits involved in the current merge conflicts

git log [ref]..[ref]
show commits between the specified range. Useful for seeing changes from
remotes:
git log HEAD..origin/master # after git remote update

git show [rev]
show the changeset (diff) of a commit specified by [rev], which can be any
SHA1 commit ID, branch name, or tag (shows the last commit (HEAD) by default)

git show --name-only [rev]
show only the names of the files that changed, no diff information.

git blame [file]
show who authored each line in [file]

git blame [file] [rev]
show who authored each line in [file] as of [rev] (allows blame to go back in
time)

git gui blame
really nice GUI interface to git blame

git whatchanged [file]
show only the commits which affected [file] listing the most recent first
E.g. view all changes made to a file on a branch:
git whatchanged [branch] [file] | grep commit | \
colrm 1 7 | xargs -I % git show % [file]
this could be combined with git remote show [remote] to find all changes on
all branches to a particular file.

git diff [commit] head path/to/fubar
show the diff between a file on the current branch and potentially another
branch

git diff --cached [[file]]
shows diff for staged (git-add'ed) files (which includes uncommitted git
cherry-pick'ed files)

git ls-files
list all files in the index and under version control.

git ls-remote [remote] [HEAD]
show the current version on the remote repo. This can be used to check whether
a local is required by comparing the local head revision.

Adding / Deleting

git add [file1] [file2] ...
add [file1], [file2], etc... to the project

git add [dir]
add all files under directory [dir] to the project, including subdirectories

git add .
add all files under the current directory to the project
*WARNING*: including untracked files.

git rm [file1] [file2] ...
remove [file1], [file2], etc... from the project

git rm $(git ls-files --deleted)
remove all deleted files from the project

git rm --cached [file1] [file2] ...
commits absence of [file1], [file2], etc... from the project

Ignoring

Add a file .gitignore to the root of your project. This file will be checked in.

Staging

git add [file1] [file2] ...
git stage [file1] [file2] ...
add changes in [file1], [file2] ... to the staging area (to be included in
the next commit

git add -p
git stage --patch
interactively walk through the current changes (hunks) in the working
tree, and decide which changes to add to the staging area.

git add -i
git stage --interactive
interactively add files/changes to the staging area. For a simpler
mode (no menu), try `git add --patch` (above)

Unstaging

git reset HEAD [file1] [file2] ...
remove the specified files from the next commit

Committing

git commit [file1] [file2] ... [-m [msg]]
commit [file1], [file2], etc..., optionally using commit message [msg],
otherwise opening your editor to let you type a commit message

git commit -a
commit all files changed since your last commit
(does not include new (untracked) files)

git commit -v
commit verbosely, i.e. includes the diff of the contents being committed in
the commit message screen

git commit --amend
edit the commit message of the most recent commit

git commit --amend [file1] [file2] ...
redo previous commit, including changes made to [file1], [file2], etc...

Branching

git branch
list all local branches

git branch -r
list all remote branches

git branch -a
list all local and remote branches

git branch -m [oldname] [newname]
rename a local branch with newname from oldname

git branch [branch]
create a new branch named [branch], referencing the same point in history as
the current branch

git branch [branch] [start-point]
create a new branch named [branch], referencing [start-point], which may be
specified any way you like, including using a branch name or a tag name

git push [repo] [start-point]:refs/heads/[branch]
create a new remote branch named [branch], referencing [start-point] on the
remote. Repo is the name of the remote.
Example: git push origin origin:refs/heads/branch-1
Example: git push origin origin/branch-1:refs/heads/branch-2
Example: git push origin branch-1 ## shortcut

git branch --track [branch] [remote-branch]
create a tracking branch. Will push/pull changes to/from another repository.
Example: git branch --track experimental origin/experimental

git branch --set-upstream [branch] [remote-branch] (As of Git 1.7.0)
Make an existing branch track a remote branch
Example: git branch --set-upstream foo origin/foo

git branch -d [branch]
delete the branch [branch]; if the branch you are deleting points to a
commit which is not reachable from the current branch, this command
will fail with a warning.

git branch -r -d [remote-branch]
delete a remote-tracking branch.
Example: git branch -r -d wycats/master

git branch -D [branch]
even if the branch points to a commit not reachable from the current branch,
you may know that that commit is still reachable from some other branch or
tag. In that case it is safe to use this command to force git to delete the
branch.

git checkout [branch]
make the current branch [branch], updating the working directory to reflect
the version referenced by [branch]

git checkout -b [new] [start-point]
create a new branch [new] referencing [start-point], and check it out.

git push [repository] :[branch]
removes a branch from a remote repository.
Example: git push origin :old_branch_to_be_deleted

git co [branch] [path to new file]
Checkout a file from another branch and add it to this branch. File
will still need to be added to the git branch, but it's present.
Eg. git co remote_at_origin__tick702_antifraud_blocking
..../...nt_elements_for_iframe_blocked_page.rb

git show [branch] -- [path to file that does not exist]
Eg. git show remote_tick702 -- path/to/fubar.txt
show the contents of a file that was created on another branch and that
does not exist on the current branch.

git show [rev]:[repo path to file]
Show the contents of a file at the specific revision. Note: path has to be
absolute within the repo.

Merging

git merge [branch]
merge branch [branch] into the current branch; this command is idempotent
and can be run as many times as needed to keep the current branch
up-to-date with changes in [branch]

git merge [branch] --no-commit
merge branch [branch] into the current branch, but do not autocommit the
result; allows you to make further tweaks

git merge [branch] -s ours
merge branch [branch] into the current branch, but drops any changes in
[branch], using the current tree as the new tree

Reverting

git revert [rev]
reverse commit specified by [rev] and commit the result. This does *not* do
the same thing as similarly named commands in other VCS's such as "svn
revert" or "bzr revert", see below

git checkout [file]
re-checkout [file], overwriting any local changes

git checkout .
re-checkout all files, overwriting any local changes. This is most similar
to "svn revert" if you're used to Subversion commands

Sharing

git fetch [remote]
update the remote-tracking branches for [remote] (defaults to "origin").
Does not initiate a merge into the current branch (see "git pull" below).

git pull
fetch changes from the server, and merge them into the current branch.
Note: .git/config must have a [branch "some_name"] section for the current
branch, to know which remote-tracking branch to merge into the current
branch. Git 1.5.3 and above adds this automatically.

git push
update the server with your commits across all branches that are *COMMON*
between your local copy and the server. Local branches that were never
pushed to the server in the first place are not shared.

git push origin [branch]
update the server with your commits made to [branch] since your last push.
This is always *required* for new branches that you wish to share. After
the first explicit push, "git push" by itself is sufficient.

git push origin [branch]:refs/heads/[branch]
E.g. git push origin twitter-experiment:refs/heads/twitter-experiment
Which, in fact, is the same as git push origin [branch] but a little
more obvious what is happening.

Fix mistakes / Undo

git reset --hard
abandon everything since your last commit; this command can be DANGEROUS.
If merging has resulted in conflicts and you'd like to just forget about
the merge, this command will do that.

git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD
undo your most recent *successful* merge *and* any changes that occurred
after. Useful for forgetting about the merge you just did. If there are
conflicts (the merge was not successful), use "git reset --hard" (above)
instead.

git reset --soft HEAD^
forgot something in your last commit? That's easy to fix. Undo your last
commit, but keep the changes in the staging area for editing.

git commit --amend
redo previous commit, including changes you've staged in the meantime.
Also used to edit commit message of previous commit.

git reset --hard [commit number]
this command will rollback to the commit specified

Remotes

git remote add [remote] [remote_URL]
adds a remote repository to your git config. Can be then fetched locally.
Example:
git remote add coreteam git://github.com/wycats/merb-plugins.git
git fetch coreteam

git push [remote] :refs/heads/[branch]
delete a branch in a remote repository

git push [remote] [remote]:refs/heads/[remote_branch]
create a branch on a remote repository
Example: git push origin origin:refs/heads/new_feature_name

git push [repository] +[remote]:[new_remote]
replace a [remote] branch with [new_remote]
think twice before do this
Example: git push origin +master:my_branch

git remote prune [remote]
prune deleted remote-tracking branches from "git branch -r" listing

git remote add -t master -m master origin git://example.com/git.git/
add a remote and track its master

git remote show [remote]
show information about the remote server.

git checkout -b [local branch] [remote]/[remote branch]
Eg git checkout -b myfeature origin/myfeature
Track a remote branch as a local branch.

git pull [remote] [branch]
git push
For branches that are remotely tracked (via git push) but
that complain about non-fast forward commits when doing a
git push. The pull synchronizes local and remote, and if
all goes well, the result is pushable.

git fetch [remote]
Retrieves all branches from the remote repository. After
this 'git branch --track ...' can be used to track a branch
from the new remote.